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ಗುಲಬರ್ಗಾ : Gulbarga district is one of the three districts that were transferred from Hyderabad State to Karnataka state at the time of re-organization of the state in 1956.The district is one among the 30 districts of Karnataka State.It is located  in the Northern part of the state and lies between Notrh latitude 170 10 and 170 45 and between east longitude 760 10 and 770 45.It is bounded on the west by Bijapur district of  Karnataka and Solapur district of Maharastra,on the north by Bidar district of Karnataka and Zaheerabad district of Andhrapradesh and on the sotuh by Yadgir,a newly formed,district of Karnataka.The district constitutes 7 revenue blocks and 8 educational blocks,they are Afzalpur. Aland, Chincholi, Chittapur, Gulbarga (North),Gulbarga(South),Jewargi and Sedam.

Gulbarga, popularly called as "Kalaburgi" by the local people, was once a capital of the bahamani Kingdom Gulbarga has a rich historical and cultural traditions. Bahamanis, the earliest Muslim empire of South India chose Gulbarga to be their capital and ruled from here from 1347 to 1425 A.D.

Mentioned as Kalburagi, Kalumbarige, Kalabarge, etc. in ancient inscriptions, Gulbarga is popularly known as "Kalburgi" by the locals. Gulbarga district has its roots deep in history. The famous dynasties of the south, the Satavahans, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Rastrkuta, Shahis, the Aidil shahis, the Nizam Shahis have ruled over the district.

In 1504 Gulbarga was permanently annexed to Adil Shahi kingdom of Bijapur. In 1657 with the invasion of Mir Jumla it passed into the hands of Mughals. Later with the establishment of Asaf Jahi (Nizam) Dynasty of Hydrabad (1724 - 1948) Gulbarga came under it. In 1863 when Nizam Government formed Jillabandi, Surpur (Shorapur) became district headquarter, with nine Talukas of which Gulbarga was one of them. In 1873 Gulbarga was formed into Separate district with seven taluks. With reorganization of states in 1956 Gulbarga became Part of Karnataka State and Divisional headquarter.

The Bahamani rulers built Gulbarga city with Palaces, Mosques, Gumbazs, Bazaars and other public buildings. There are five score large and small Mosques and three score and ten Darghas in Gulbarga. The City is described as a "Garden of Gumbazs" So also number of Temples, churches and other religious centers are spread all over the city.

In side the fort the Jumma Masjid, a noteworthy monument of Gulbarga is in well preserved condition. It is said that it resembles the famous mosque of 'Cordova' city in Spain. The Masjid measuring 216 ft. east-west and 176 ft north south covering an area of 38016 sqft. Happens to be the only mosque in India, which is completely covered. Fergusson observes this " as one of the most remarkable of its class in India in some respect unique.

Cultural Characteristics

The people of this region have unique style of costume i.e.they foster the traditional dresses which symbolize their indianisation in exposing through the dresses. The chief of them is Pache and Shirt, the women wrap the chief garment i.e.Saree.As days are passing the people of this district are fascinated towards modern and modest dresses, stepping into the shoes of western. as the proverb goes, ' The grass on the other hedge looks greener'.

The people of this district are famous in fostering the traditions. They are conservative and orthodox. As for rituals are concerned there is no compromise in omitting the scientific outlook. Still they observe some religious practices. Besides celebrating the festivals inorder to showcare their universal solidarity and fraternity.Gulbarga district stands out for all cultural,national and regional festivals.People in the villages and the city dwellers celebrate the regional festivals with religious fervor and great gusto.

During the time of harvest they do perform some plays.Through the plays they convey the message to their own community to rectify the evils in the society which are still prevailing.

It is predominantly an agricultural district divided into two agro climatic zones namely eastern transition and north eastern dry zone. The zones indicate the predominance of rain dependent dry land agricultural area. The normal rainfall of the district is 777 mms. The climate of Gulbarga District is generally dry and healthy. The net sown area in the district is 85.1 per cent of the total cultivable land area, which is 13821.94 square kilometers.

The major crops grown in the district are jowar, red gram, sunflower and groundnut. In terms of productivity the yields of principal crops is lesser than the state average. The variation in rainfall and endemic pest attack has affected productivity of tur (red gram). The production and productivity of jowar has been improving because of better use of fertilizer and plant protection measures. In case of oil seeds the area and production has been decreased.

Agriculture in the district mainly depends upon the rainfall and the net area irrigated to net area sown is 14%, which is below the state average of 24%. Bhima, Kagina, Mullamari, Benne Tora and Bori rivers flow in the district. The medium irrigation projects in the district is Chandrampalli, Apart from this, the medium projects of Amarja, Mullamari and Benne Tora are also to be completed. There are 36 lift irrigation schemes and 445 minor irrigation tanks in the district.

Cattle, Poultry, Sheep, Goats and Buffaloes constitute the major livestock of the district. It is to be noted that poultry and goat-rearing activities will increase the burden of work for children.

Though 18.73 percent of men and 25.86 per cent of women are agricultural laborers, they do not have yearlong employment. There is also temporary migration of full families or male workers. The migration is more in Afzalpur, Aland ,Chittapur,Chincholi blocks they are migrating in the month of November. In the former case children get enrolled to school but fail to attend thereafter when they move out of their villages with their parents for employment. In the latter case, females left behind by the males in the family hardly evince any interest in schooling of their children or participate in Gramsabha meetings, SDMC meetings etc,.

Note:This Content copied from wikipedia