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Hangal


Hangal is a town in Haveri district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is 75 km away from Hubli-Dharwad.It is on the left bank of the Dharma river, and has ruins of some fortification on the river bank.and town has a huge lake near billeshwara temple called Anekere. and also this town called in the name of Viratnagar of Mahabharath. famous Cultural sport of the hangal is "HattiHabba" The town has a huge Tarakeshwara temple. Other temple in the town are Ganesha temple, Virabhadra, Billeshwara and Ramalinga are the important temples. And a famous Veerashaiva Kumaraswami matha located in this town.


Hangal was also called as Hanungal.


Hangal was the capital of the Hangal Kadambas, feudatories of the Kalyani Chalukyas. It is mentioned as Panungal in early records and identified by tradition with Viratanagara of Mahabharata days. It was once the headquarters of a district called Panungal-500.


Kadambas


Kadambas is an ancient dynasty of south India who primarily ruled the region which is present day Goa state and nearby Konkan region (part of modern Maharashtra and Karnataka state). The early rulers of this dynasty established themselves at Vaijayanti or Banavasi in 345 AD and ruled as independent rulers for more than 2 centuries.


The Kadambas, the earliest known dynasty to patronize Jainism was that of the Kadambas who ruled around 485 A.D. This is evident from Kamalajinalaya built near Banavasi by Ravivarma. There were several other Jaina monuments built under Kadamba patronage. Parsvanatha temple at Kuppatur built for Kadamba queen Maladevi and Jaina temple built in Hangal, fort are two such examples.


In 607 AD, Chalukyas of Vatapi (Badami) sacked Banavasi and Kadamba kingdom was incorporated into expanding Chalukya empire. In 8th century AD, Badami Chalukyas were overthrown by Rashtrakutas who ruled supreme in south India till 10th century.


Kadamba of Hangal


In 980 AD, descendents of Chalukyas and Kadambas rose against Rashtrakutas and Rashtrakuta empire fell resulting in establishment of second Chalukya dynasty (called Western Chalukyas).


Chatta Deva during 980-1031, founder of Kadambas of Hangal, who helped Western Chalukyas in this coup, re-established Kadamba Dynasty. He was mostly a feudatory of Western Chalukyas but his successors enjoyed considerable independence and were almost sovereign rulers of Goa and Konkan till 14th century AD. The successors of Chatta Deva occupied both Banavasi and Hangal and are known as Kadambas of Hangal. Uniting Banavasi and Hangal, distinguished himself against the Cholas and carved out a kingdom (which stretched, on this side, including Ratnagiri district, up to Kolhapur).[8] He is referred to as having conquered Konkan. When the Chalukyas under their king, Jayasimha made an advance on Dhar(capital of the Malavas) and defeated Bhoja, who was then the Paramar king, the part played by Chaltadev(Chatta Deva), the feudatory of the Chalukyas, was significant. During 1075-1116 Kirtivarma subdued the 7 Konkans.


Due to the struggle between the Hoysalas and the Yadavas, for supremacy, the Kadambas of Hangal Kamdeva marched against the Konkan and compelled Vijayadatta (to transfer his allegiance to him). But during 1187 and 1188, immediately on his accession, Jayakesi III declared himself independent.


Later Kadambas kept paying nominal allegiance to Yadavas and Hoysalas of Dorasamudra and thus maintained their independence.


Four different families of Kadambas ruled in southern India which were Kadambas of Hangal, Kadambas of Goa, Kadambas of Belur and Kadambas of Banavasi.



Coinage of Hangal Kadambas


Kadambas coins were one the heaviest and perhaps purest of all medieval Indian gold coinage. Kadambas issued 2 types of gold coins, namely Punch-marked gold coins and Die struck gold coins. During 1075-1094 AD, Shanti Varma, issued Gold Punchmarked Coin and in 1065 AD, Toyimadeva, issued Die struck gold coins (Pagoda).


Punch-marked gold coins


Kadamba punch-marked gold coin issued in name of Jaysimha II Jagadekamalla (Chalukya).


Coin consists of a central punch mark of Hanuman, and 4 retrospectant lions.


2 prominent punch marks create 2 Shri alphabets depicts goddess Laxmi in Telugu-Kannada script.


Die struck gold coins (Pagoda)


In 1065 AD Kadambas Toyimadeva issued first die struck gold coins.


The gold coin of Kadambas depict god Hanuman, in side lined circle and doted circle, flanked by two chouries and conch. Also include the figures of sun and moon. Below is the legend Nakara (Nagara, the deity of Bankapura, Nagareshwara) in Telugu-Kannada script.


Western Chalukyas


Hangal attained significance under the Kalyani Chalukyas who were the chief powers in the Deccan( 10th - 12th century). Chalukyas were renowned for their architectural (Gadag style) innovations, built out of the grey green chloritic schist of the region. For example monuments (temple) at Mahadeva Temple (Itagi), Gadag, Hangal and Lakkundi. So hangal comes under the core area of Western Chalukya.


The Western Chalukyas (in 973) rose to power by defeating the Rashtrakutas with the help of Kadambas. Then Kadambas chief Chatta Deva was allowed by Taila II to rule Banavasi, he (during 980 - 1031 AD), consolidated his domain in the western Tungabhadra river basin under Chalukya shelter.


Hoysalas


Hangal gain importance during the rule of Kalyani Chalukyas (10th to the 12th century), and was later comes under the Hoysalas with the decline of the Chalukyas. Bileshwara temple at hangal is in the Hoysala style.

Note:This Content copied from wikipedia.